The Physiology of Fitness

The Physiology of Fitness

1 Know the body’s response to acute exercise

Musculoskeletal response: increased blood supply; increase in muscle pliability; increased range of movement; muscle fibre micro tears

Energy systems: phosphocreatine; lactic acid; aerobic; energy continuum; energy requirements of different sport and exercise activities

Cardiovascular response: heart rate anticipatory response; activity response; increased blood pressure; vasoconstriction; vasodilation

Respiratory: increase in breathing rate (neural and chemical control); increased tidal volume

2 Know the long-term effects of exercise on the body systems

Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood

volume; reduction in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased aerobic fitness

Muscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat;

increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid

Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid

Respiratory system: increased vital capacity; increase in minute ventilation; increased strength of respiratory muscles; increase in oxygen diffusion rate

Energy systems: increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes; increased use of fats as an energy source

3 Be able to investigate the physiological effects of exercise on the body systems

Types of exercise: eg aerobic, resistance, circuit, interval

Methods of investigation: comparison of pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise physiological readings, eg resting heart rate, exercise heart rate, percent heart rate

maximum, percent heart rate reserve maximum, Rating of Perceived Exertion, blood pressure, flexibility tests, spirometry

Review: effects of exercise on the body systems (acute and long-term); pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise physiological data; practicality of exercise activities

selected; advantages and disadvantages; strengths and areas for improvement
Grading criteria
To achieve a pass grade the evidence must
show that the learner is able to:
To achieve a merit grade the evidence must
show that, in addition to the pass criteria,
the learner is able to:
To achieve a distinction grade the evidence
must show that, in addition to the pass and
merit criteria, the learner is able to:
P1  describe the musculoskeletal
and energy systems response
to acute exercise
M1 explain the response
of the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular and respiratory
systems to acute exercise
P2  describe the cardiovascular and
respiratory systems responses
to acute exercise
P3   describe the long-term
effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal system and
energy systems    M2 explain the long-term
effects of exercise on
the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems
P4   describe the long-term
effects of exercise on the
cardiovascular and respiratory
systems
P5   collect physiological
data to investigate the
effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal, cardiovascular,
respiratory and energy
systems, with tutor support    M3  collect physiological
data to investigate the
effects of exercise on
the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems, with
limited tutor support    D1   independently investigate
the physiological
effects of exercise on
the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems
P6   review physiological data
collected, describing the
effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal, cardiovascular,
respiratory and energy systems.    M4  review physiological data
collected, explaining
the effects of exercise
on the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems.    D2  review physiological
data collected, analysing
the effects of exercise
on the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems.

Unit 2
Teaching Resource
Task 1
1 Know the body’s response to acute exercise

Musculoskeletal response: increased blood supply; increase in muscle pliability; increased range of movement; muscle fibre micro tears

Energy systems: phosphocreatine; lactic acid; aerobic; energy continuum; energy requirements of different sport and exercise activities

Cardiovascular response: heart rate anticipatory response; activity response; increased blood pressure; vasoconstriction; vasodilation

Respiratory: increase in breathing rate (neural and chemical control); increased tidal volume

Grading Criteria for assessment of Task 1
P1  describe the musculoskeletal
and energy systems response
to acute exercise
M1 explain the response
of the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular and respiratory
systems to acute exercise
P2  describe the cardiovascular and
respiratory systems responses
to acute exercise

Assessment Assignment 2.1
Date set
Submission Date
Overview
Scenario
You are on work placement at a local gym. Your supervisor has asked you to put together a personal training plan for a client. However, before you do this she would

like you to carry out a series of investigations to ensure that you fully understand the different body systems involved, how they work together during exercise and

why they should be taken into account during fitness training and sports participation.

Activity 1
Understanding the initial responses of the body to exercise is important in a range of professions, for example, cardiologists, fitness consultants and personal

trainers. To be able to work effectively in the sport and exercise industry you need to have a good understanding of how the body reacts to exercise. This will enable

you to plan the intensity level of exercise or training for the people that you work with.

Your supervisor has asked you to investigate the initial responses of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to exercise. In the investigation you will first need

to record the resting heart rate, breathing rate and blood pressure of your participants, using the table below. These three readings should also be monitored during

the exercises you have devised. The results taken during exercise can then be compared to the initial resting levels you have recorded and a report written explaining

what the results mean.

The body’s responses to acute exercise are as follows.

• Musculoskeletal response: increased blood supply; increase in muscle pliability; increased range of movement; muscle fi bre micro tears.

• Energy systems: phosphocreatine; lactic acid; aerobic; energy continuum; energy requirements of different sport and exercise activities.

• Cardiovascular response: heart rate anticipatory response; activity response; increased blood pressure; vasoconstriction; vasodilation.

• Respiratory response: increase in breathing rate (neural and chemical control); increased tidal volume.

After you have collated the data using the table below Describe the cardiovascular and respiratory systems responses to acute exercise (P2).

Phase of session
Resting pulse rate    Breathing rate    Blood pressure
Pre – exercise

Warm – up completion
5 – 10 minutes

10 – 15 minutes

15 – 20 minutes

20 – 25 minutes

25 – 30 minutes

Activity 2

Your supervisor would now like you to Describe the musculoskeletal and energy systems responses to acute exercise (P1).

Activity 3

Explain the response of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems to acute exercise (M1).

Hint

P1

For P1, learners need to describe the responses of the musculoskeletal and energy systems to a single bout of exercise. They will need to include how muscle responds

to exercise including the increased blood supply and also the effects of resistance exercises which includes micro tears. Each of the energy systems should be

described and their contribution to exercise as the exercise bout continues over a period of around 30 minutes.

P2

For P2, learners need to describe how the cardiovascular and respiratory systems respond to a single bout of exercise. This should also include the pre-exercise

effects which occur in the heart. Learners should explore the effects over an exercise period of around 30 minutes so that steady state has been attained.

M1

For M1, learners need to explain the responses of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems to a single bout of exercise. They will need to include

how muscle responds to exercise including the increased blood supply and also the effects of resistance exercises which includes micro tears. Cardiovascular and

respiratory responses should be explained; learners should give reasons and provide the physiological evidence to clearly support their explanation.

Grading Criteria

This assignment will assess P1, P2 and M1.

P1

Describe the musculoskeletal and energy systems responses to acute exercise

P2

Describe the cardiovascular and respiratory systems responses to acute exercise

M1

Explain the response of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems to acute exercise

Useful Resources

Barker R et al — BTEC National Sport: Sports Development and Fitness Options
(Heinemann, 2004)

Dalgleish J et al — The Health & Fitness Handbook (Longman, 2001)

Heyward V — Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription (Human
Kinetics, 2006)

Honeybourne J — BTEC National Sport (Nelson Thornes, 2004)

Lawrence M — The Complete Guide to Core Stability (A and C Black, 2003)

Sharkey B and Gaskill E — Fitness and Health (Human Kinetics, 2006)

British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences www.bases.org.uk

Human Kinetics www.humankinetics.com

Top End Sports www.topendsports.com
Task 2
2 Know the long-term effects of exercise on the body systems

Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood

volume; reduction in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased aerobic fitness

Muscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat;

increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid

Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid

Respiratory system: increased vital capacity; increase in minute ventilation; increased strength of respiratory muscles; increase in oxygen diffusion rate

Energy systems: increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes; increased use of fats as an energy source

Grading Criteria for assessment of Task 2
P3   describe the long-term
effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal system and
energy systems
P4   describe the long-term
effects of exercise on the
cardiovascular and respiratory
systems
M2 explain the long-term
effects of exercise on
the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems

Assessment Assignment 2.2

Date set
Submission Date
Overview
Scenario

Understanding the adaptations to training is important in a range of professions, for example, fitness consultants and personal trainers. To be able to work

effectively in the sport and exercise industry you need to have a good understanding of how the body adapts to the training that you have prescribed. An understanding

of the adaptations to training will enable you to plan how long a sports person may need to train to reach their goal.

Activity 1

Your supervisor would like you to produce a summary sheet Describing the long-term effects of exercise on the Muscular skeletal and energy systems (P3).

Activity 2

You have now been asked by your supervisor to produce a summary sheet Describing the long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems (P4).

Activity 3

Finally your supervisor would like you to Explain the long–term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems (M2).

Hint

P3

For P3, learners need to describe the adaptations of the musculoskeletal system and energy systems to long-term exercise such as a six-week training programme.
P4

For P4, learners need to describe the adaptations of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to long-term exercise such as a six-week training programme.

M2

For M2, learners need to explain the adaptations of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems to long-term exercise such as a six-week

training programme.

Grading Criteria

This assignment will assess P3, P4 and M2.

P3

Describe the long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
P4

Describe the long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
M2

Explain the long–term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems

Useful Resources

Barker R et al — BTEC National Sport: Sports Development and Fitness Options
(Heinemann, 2004)

Dalgleish J et al — The Health & Fitness Handbook (Longman, 2001)

Heyward V — Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription (Human
Kinetics, 2006)

Honeybourne J — BTEC National Sport (Nelson Thornes, 2004)

Lawrence M — The Complete Guide to Core Stability (A and C Black, 2003)

Sharkey B and Gaskill E — Fitness and Health (Human Kinetics, 2006)

British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences www.bases.org.uk

Human Kinetics www.humankinetics.com

Top End Sports www.topendsports.com

Task 3
3 Be able to investigate the physiological effects of exercise on the body systems

Types of exercise: eg aerobic, resistance, circuit, interval

Methods of investigation: comparison of pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise physiological readings, eg resting heart rate, exercise heart rate, percent heart rate

maximum, percent heart rate reserve maximum, Rating of Perceived Exertion, blood pressure, flexibility tests, spirometry

Review: effects of exercise on the body systems (acute and long-term); pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise physiological data; practicality of exercise activities

selected; advantages and disadvantages; strengths and areas for improvement

Grading Criteria for assessment of Task 3

P5   collect physiological
data to investigate the
effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal, cardiovascular,
respiratory and energy
systems, with tutor support    M3  collect physiological
data to investigate the
effects of exercise on
the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems, with
limited tutor support    D1   independently investigate
the physiological
effects of exercise on
the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems
P6   review physiological data
collected, describing the
effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal, cardiovascular,
respiratory and energy systems.    M4  review physiological data
collected, explaining
the effects of exercise
on the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems.    D2  review physiological
data collected, analysing
the effects of exercise
on the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems.

Assessment Assignment 2.3

Date set
Submission Date
Overview
Scenario

Understanding the responses of the body to exercise is important in a range of professions, for example, fitness consultants and personal trainers. To be able to work

effectively in the sport and exercise industry you need to have a good understanding of how the body reacts and recovers.
You should also be able to measure and test clients to determine any problems that they may have.
This will enable you to plan appropriate exercise levels and rest periods for the people that you work with.

Activity 1

While shadowing the personal trainer at the gym, you have been asked to assist in practical testing and assessment of individuals in a variety of exercises. Once

testing is complete you will need to present the results in a PowerPoint presentation to the personal trainer explaining the scores that you have analysed.

You will need to investigate the effects of exercise in a range of activities that could be used in a training programme.

Collect physiological data to investigate the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems, with tutor (P5) limited tutor

(M3) independently (D1) support

This should include exercises for the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system and energy systems. Use the table below to record the results of your

investigation.
The exercises can include:

• aerobic exercises, e.g. treadmill running, cycling, rowing

• anaerobic exercises, e.g. ski squat, vertical jumps or 1(rm) lifts, or cycling (such as spinning).

Repeated Wingate tests can help replicate accurate scores for spinning hill climb or sprint sections.
You must select at least two exercises – one from each of the aerobic and anaerobic lists.
For the aerobic exercises, pre-exercise levels need to be recorded for resting heart rate, blood pressure and tidal volume. Anaerobic scores could also include a

record of flexibility or strength scores.
Data should then be collected during an activity. The activity should last for 30 minutes for aerobic and up to 30 seconds for anaerobic. The performer could also be

monitored in recovery.

Factor    Exercise one    Exercise two
Resting Heart Rate
Exercise heart rate
Per cent heart rate
Rating of perceived exertion
Blood pressure
Breathing rate
Flexibility (if applicable)

Activity 2

Your supervisor would now like you to review physiological data collected, describing (P6) explaining (M4) and analysing (D1) the effects of exercise on the

musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems.

Hint

P5

For P5, learners will have received tutor support whilst setting up and collecting physiological data from an investigation. Learners should select at least two

different types of exercise in order to determine how the different types of exercise result in differing adaptations. Learners should also examine the acute response

to their selected exercises as well as the long-term effects of exercise. Physiological data should be recorded pre-, during and post-exercise.

P6

For P6, learners need to examine the data collected and review the results by describing how the body responds to each type of exercise during the acute phases and

also the long-term effects of the selected exercises. Learners need to review physiological data collected before, during and post-exercise. Consideration should also

be given to the practicality of the exercise activities selected, and any advantages or disadvantages encountered during data collection. Learners should be able to

describe the strengths and areas for improvement of their investigation.

M3

For M3, learners will have received very little tutor support whilst setting up the investigation and collecting physiological data from the investigation. Learners

should select at least two different types of exercise in order to determine how the different types of exercise result in differing adaptations. Learners should also

examine the acute response to their selected exercises and also the longer term effects of exercise.

M4

For M4, learners need to examine the data collected and review the results by explaining how the body responds to each type of exercise during the acute phases and

also the long-term effects of the selected exercises on the body systems. Learners will also need to explain the practicality of the exercise activities selected, and

any advantages or disadvantages encountered during data collection. Learners should be able to explain the strengths and areas for improvement of their investigation.

D1

For D1, which links to P5 and M3, learners will have independently conducted their investigation. Learners should select at least two different types of exercise in

order to determine how the different types of exercise result in differing adaptations. Learners should examine both the acute response to their selected exercises and

also the longer term effects of exercise.

D2

For D2, which links to P6 and M4, learners need to examine the data collected and review the results by analysing how the body responds to each type of exercise during

the acute phases and also the longer term effects of the selected exercises. The analysis will need to include the practicality of the exercise activities selected and

advantages/disadvantages encountered with the way in which physiological data was collected. An analysis of the strengths and areas for improvement of the

investigation will need to be included in the review.

Grading Criteria

This assignment will assess P3, P4 and M2.

P5
Collect physiological data to investigate the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems, with tutor support

P6
Review physiological data collected, describing the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems

M3
Collect physiological data to investigate the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems, with limited tutor support

M4
Review physiological data collected, explaining the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems

D1
Collect physiological data to investigate the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems, independently

D2
Review physiological data collected, analysing the effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems

Useful Resources

Barker R et al — BTEC National Sport: Sports Development and Fitness Options
(Heinemann, 2004)

Dalgleish J et al — The Health & Fitness Handbook (Longman, 2001)

Heyward V — Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription (Human
Kinetics, 2006)

Honeybourne J — BTEC National Sport (Nelson Thornes, 2004)

Lawrence M — The Complete Guide to Core Stability (A and C Black, 2003)

Sharkey B and Gaskill E — Fitness and Health (Human Kinetics, 2006)

British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences www.bases.org.uk

Human Kinetics www.humankinetics.com

Top End Sports www.topendsports.com

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